Carfentanil or carfentanyl is a structural analog of the synthetic opioid analgesic fentanyl. Commercial production of Wildnil ceased inand the drug is available only as a compounded dosage form.

Carfentanil is added to or sold as heroin because it is less expensive, easier to obtain and easier to make than heroin. According to an Associated Press article from"Chemical weapon for sale: China's unregulated narcotic", fentanylcarfentanil and other highly potent derivatives of fentanyl were actively marketed by several Chinese chemical companies.

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Authorities in Latvia and Lithuania reported seizing carfentanil as an illicit drug in the early s. In June the Royal Canadian Mounted Police seized one kilogram of carfentanil shipped from China in a box labeled "printer accessories".

According to the Canada Border Services Agency, the shipment contained 50 million lethal doses of the drug, more than enough to wipe out the entire population of the country, in containers labeled as toner cartridges for Hewlett-Packard LaserJet printers.

Allan Lai, an officer-in-charge at the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in Calgary who helped oversee the criminal investigation said, "With respect to carfentanil, we don't know why a substance of that potency is coming into our country. Ina team of researchers at the British chemical and biological defence laboratories at Porton Down found carfentanil and remifentanil in clothing from two British survivors of the Moscow theater hostage crisis and in the urine from a third survivor.

The team concluded that the Russian military used an aerosol mist of carfentanil and remifentanil to subdue Chechen hostage takers. Authors of a previous paper in the Annals of Emergency Medicine surmised from the available evidence that the Moscow emergency services had not been informed of the use of the agent, but were instructed to bring opioid antagonists. Not knowing to expect hundreds of patients exposed to high doses of strong opioids, the emergency workers did not bring enough naloxone or naltrexone the two most commonly used opioid antagonists to counteract the carfentanil and remifentanil and save the lives of many of the victims.

The toxicity of carfentanil in humans and its ready commercial availability has aroused concerns over its potential use as a weapon of mass destruction by rogue nations and terrorist groups. The toxicity of carfentanil has been compared to that of nerve gasaccording to the Associated Press' article "Chemical weapon for sale: China's unregulated narcotic".

The article quoted Andrew C. Companies shouldn't be just sending it to anybody. We are also concerned that groups like ISIS could order it commercially. Carfentanil is a lipophilic chemical, and can easily cross the blood-brain barrier.

lethal dose of carfentanil

It has very rapid onset of effects, but is also shorter acting than fentanyl. For pain relief, a unit of carfentanil is times as potent as the same amount of fentanyl, 5, times as potent as a unit of heroin and 10, times as potent as a unit of morphine. Carfentanil has been controlled in China since 1 March Carfentanil has been specifically controlled as a Class A drug since [24].

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chemical compound. Not to be confused with Carfenil. IUPAC name. Interactive image. See also: Gray death. Main article: Moscow theater hostage crisis. Paul A. Janssen: entrepreneur extraordinaire, innovative scientist, and significant contributor to anesthesiology". Anesthesia and Analgesia.

The Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine. Image 4 of 17". Drug Enforcement Administration. United States Drug Enforcement Administration. Frontiers in Pharmacology.

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From the conclusion: "Postmortem concentrations seemed to correlate with their potency, although the presence of other CNS depressants, such as ethanol and benzodiazepines has to be taken into account. Retrieved 24 November Milwaukee Journal Sentinel.Official websites use. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. Carfentanil is a synthetic opioid that is 10, times more potent than morphine and times more potent than fentanyl, which itself is 50 times more potent than heroin.

DEA, local law enforcement and first responders have recently seen the presence of carfentanil, which has been linked to a significant number of overdose deaths in various parts of the country.

Improper handling of carfentanil, as well as fentanyl and other fentanyl-related compounds, has deadly consequences. It is crazy dangerous. Synthetics such as fentanyl and carfentanil can kill you. I hope our first responders - and the public - will read and heed our health and safety warning. These men and women have remarkably difficult jobs and we need them to be well and healthy. Carfentanil is a Schedule II substance under the Controlled Substances Act and is used as a tranquilizing agent for elephants and other large mammals.

The lethal dose range for carfentanil in humans is unknown. However, as noted, carfentanil is approximately times more potent than fentanyl, which can be lethal at the 2-milligram range, depending on route of administration and other factors. Carfentanil and other fentanyl-related compounds are a serious danger to public safety, first responder, medical, treatment, and laboratory personnel.

These substances can come in several forms, including powder, blotter paper, tablets, and spray - they can be absorbed through the skin or accidental inhalation of airborne powder.

lethal dose of carfentanil

If encountered, responding personnel should do the following based on the specific situation:. Exercise extreme caution. If encountered, contact the appropriate officials within your agency.

Be aware of any sign of exposure. The onset of these symptoms usually occurs within minutes of exposure. If inhaled, move the victim to fresh air.But how much do you know about it? Here are five quick facts:.

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Drug Free VA. Opioid addiction is devastating communities throughout the nation. How much do you know about the drug class? By clicking "Submit" you will be leaving the site to complete your email subscription on an external site. The inclusion of a link on this website does not constitute an official endorsement, guarantee, or approval by DEA.

Drug dealers mix it with heroin to presumably make the heroin stronger. It is 10, times more potent than morphine and times more potent than fentanyl. The drug is also used to tranquilize elephants and other large mammals.

This drug is so powerful it poses a significant threat to first responders and law enforcement personnel who touch it by accident. In addition, people can overdose on carfentanil quickly.

Run-ins with Carfentanil: The opioid 5,000 times more potent than heroin

Multiple doses of the anti-overdose drug Narcan may not be effective. Users exposed to carfentanil can experience dizziness, clammy skin, shallow breathing, heart failure and more. See Also Sign up for updates. Learn About Drugs Heroin.Discovery of 42kg of opioid, described as times more toxic than fentanyl, in Toronto home throws spotlight on dangerous and poorly understood drug.

I t was a carbon monoxide alarm that brought the Canadian authorities to the house in Liatris Drive, a quiet residential street lined with manicured gardens. As firefighters checked over the house to ensure its inhabitants were safe, something else caught their eye: kilograms of a mysterious powder sitting in the basement. Soon afterwards, the police arrived at the house in Pickering, near Toronto, with a search warrant.

They seized 33 identical handguns — and 53kg of the unidentified white and yellow powder. The local police force had unwittingly stumbled across what is believed to be the largest volume of the opioid ever seized in North America. Developed in the s as a tranquilizer for large animals such as elephants and bears, the synthetic opioid has also been studied as a potential chemical weapon by countries including the US, China and Israel.

It is thought to have been deployed with disastrous effects when Russian special forces attempted to rescue hundreds of hostages from a Moscow theatre in But it only burst into public view last year after officials across North America began to warn that it was being cut with heroin and other illicit drugs, leaving a rash of overdoses and deaths in its wake.

Authorities in Cincinnati said the drug was one possible explanation for why people in the US city had overdosed in the span of six days. Dealers were now cutting carfentanil into heroin and other drugs to offer users a hard-hitting, longer-lasting high, officials said as they scrambled to shore up supplies of the antidote.

While it often takes just one or two shots of naloxone to counteract a heroin overdose, overdoses involving carfentanil can take half a dozen shots or more. The use of carfentanil by dealers is complicated by a lack of information regarding potency, said Hakique Virani, a Canadian doctor who specialises in addiction medicine.

lethal dose of carfentanil

Police arrested a year-old man in connection with the Pickering seizure in September, charging him with possession for the purpose of trafficking as well as weapons-related charges. A spokesman for the Durham Region Police Service declined to say whether other charges are also being considered.

What could widen the scope of the investigation are the concerns the US voiced over carfentanil last year. The remarks came after Canadian police — protected by hazmat suits and oxygen containers — seized one kilogram of carfentanil hidden inside cartridges labelled as printer ink and which had been shipped to Vancouver from China.

Given the purity of the substance seized, police estimated that the package could contain as many as 50m lethal doses — enough to wipe out the entire population of the country. Wherever carfentanil goes, death follows, said Brian Escamilla, a forensic chemist who has trained officials with the US DEA for more than a decade. Russian special forces are suspected to have used carfentanil after Chechen rebels seized a Moscow theatre intaking more than people hostage.

The gas was later blamed for the deaths of at least hostages. A analysis by British scientists that looked at the clothing and urine of three survivors concluded that the gas was likely a mixture of carfentanil and remifentanil, a potent short-acting opioid used for sedation. The tragedy shed light on another facet of the danger carfentanil poses to the public, said Escamilla.

Due to an editing error an earlier version referred to Durhan rather than Durham Region Police Service. A forensic scientist processes seized narcotics, which have become increasingly dangerous as more are laced with deadly synthetic opioids such as fentanyl and carfentanil.

Photograph: Alamy Stock Photo. Ashifa Kassam in Toronto. Sun 12 Nov How the war on drugs fueled the fentanyl crisis George Karandinos. Read more. US overdose deaths from fentanyl and synthetic opioids doubled in Dangerous prescription opioids are no longer just limited to Oxycontin or Vicodin.

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As reported by the U. Centers for Disease Control CDC infentanyl is now considered the number one drug leading to opioid overdose deaths in America. Fentanyl is a legal prescription drug used for pain control during surgery and for chronic or breakthrough cancer pain.

It's also being manufactured illegally and sold for its euphoric effects.

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Street drugs like heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine are being laced with this opioid, as are counterfeit drugs made to look like the real ones, like Vicodin or Xanax. Many approved prescription dose forms are available: injection, transdermal patch, oral sublingual tablet or transmucosal lozenge, and nasal or oral spray.

Approved generics of some formulations are available. Doses are not equivalent between different dose forms and substitution may be lethal. Only patients who are considered opioid-tolerant have received certain amounts of opioids within the last week should use fentanyl. Opioid-tolerant patients have already received a therapeutic dose of an opiate for certain a period of time.

While fentanyl can be a useful prescription analgesic, it is now considered the number one opioid killer due to overdose deaths as reported by the U. Other opioids have held this dubious position; inoxycodone Oxycontin held the top spot leading to opioid overdose deaths, and from until it was heroin.

It is especially dangerous because it is roughly 50 times more potent than heroin and times more potent than morphine and acts quickly due to rapid uptake in the brain. Duragesic, the patch, can be fatal because high amounts of the drug are retained in the patch after use. The patch can fall off and lead to an overdose if touched. Deaths in children due to accidental exposure have occurred. To lower this risk for children and pets, the FDA states that used patches require proper disposal after use -- fold the patch, sticky sides together, and flush it down the toilet right away.

Among an estimated 70, drug overdose deaths inthe largest increase was related to fentanyl and its analogs with more than 28, overdose deaths. However, these numbers are likely underreported. In a report from the CDC, the drugs most commonly involved in drug overdose deaths during to included fentanyl, heroin, oxycodone, and cocaine. Each year from tothe rate of deaths due to fentanyl or it's analogs doubled 0.

According to the DEA, illegally manufactured fentanyl it is being produced in China and Mexico and crossing over the U. Online pharmacies from China are also selling this illegal substance. Many of the pills found on the street are made in illegal tableting and encapsulating machines bought in China.

Fentanyl is easy to make, less bulky, and easier to ship than heroin. Do not buy drugs from unverified online pharmacies whether they are foreign or in the states.Fentanyl is a narcotic analgesic with a potency at least 80 times that of morphine. Fentanyl and its derivatives Alfentanil, Sufentanil, Remifentanil and Carfentanil are used as anaesthetics and analgesics in both human and veterinary medicine Carfentanil. Fentanyl CAS is a piperidine derivative.

Different fentanyl derivatives have been developed by the legitimate pharmaceutical industry by adding various substituents to the basic molecule in order to modify potency Table 1. This approach has been mimicked by chemists in clandestine laboratories to produce illicit NPF derivatives.

Depending on the position of the substituents, some of the resulting molecules may exist as enantiomers e. Van Bever et al. The trans isomer was slightly more active than fentanyl, but its corresponding cis form was eight times more active.

Fentanyl and its salts are white granular or crystalline powders. Pharmaceutical formulations occur as solutions of fentanyl citrate for injection and in transdermal patches, as well as transmucosal lozenges.

Fentanyl Abuse: Top 11 Facts About This Potent and Deadly Opioid

Apart from analgesia, the fentanyls as a group produce drowsiness and euphoria, the latter being less pronounced than with heroin and morphine. The most common side effects include nausea, dizziness, vomiting, fatigue, headache, constipation, anaemia and peripheral oedema.

lethal dose of carfentanil

Tolerance and dependence develop rapidly after repeated use. Serious interactions can occur when fentanyls are mixed with heroin, cocaine, alcohol and other CNS depressants e. The use of HIV protease inhibitors such as Ritonavir has been reported to increase plasma levels and reduce elimination of co-administered fentanyl.

Overdose results in respiratory depression which is reversible with naloxone. Sudden death can also occur because of cardiac arrest or severe anaphylactic reaction. The estimated lethal dose of fentanyl in humans is 2 mg. While fatalities have been reported after therapeutic use, many deaths have occurred as a result of the misuse of pharmaceutical products. Both used and unused fentanyl patches have been injected, smoked, snorted or taken orally with fatal consequences.

In the case of NPFs, many deaths — characterised by their suddenness — have been caused by the use of heroin laced with fentanyl or with one of its more potent analogues, such as alpha-methyl fentanyl and 3-methylfentanyl. Animal tests conducted by the Janssen Pharmaceutical research group showed that the analgesic potency of fentanyl was times that of morphine, while alpha-methylfentanyl was times more potent. Carfentanil is said to be 10 times more potent than morphine.

It is difficult to be certain that this increased analgesic potency means that the euphoric effects are similarly increased, and more importantly, whether the overdose potential of these analogues is also increased by the same margin.Synthetic opioids such as fentanyl have been making a huge splash in the United States and are causing an unprecedented number of overdoses and deaths throughout suburban America.

Recently, a significantly more potent opioid analog has appeared. Carfentanil is 10, times more powerful than morphine and has proved deadly for many unsuspecting users.

Consider yourself lucky.

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Carfentanil is an unbelievably powerful synthetic opiate, manufactured for use as a tranquilizer for large mammals, like elephants. Unlike other commonly abused opioids such as oxycodone, fentanyl, and hydromorphone, there is no practical human use for this pharmaceutical. So how is it responsible for deaths across our country? Our nation is in the midst of an opiate crisis. The abuse of narcotics including heroin and prescription painkillers is surging among middle-class, young adults.

Just like it cousin fentanyl, carfentanil is being mixed with heroin to increase its strength, thus increasing the profit margin for dealers. Fentanyl made an appearance on the opiate scene in the past few years as another dangerous heroin substitute, but the potency of carfentanil is unprecedented.

Dealers love it because it makes sense from a business perspective to mix stronger synthetics into heroin, driving up its potency and increasing sales.

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But typical drug dealers are far from chemists, so mixing lethal chemicals with drugs is far from an exact science. As pushers experiment to find the right potency, users can never be sure of which substance they are using or in what amounts. Even without the danger of synthetics, opiate addicts are always at risk for overdose.

This new danger adds a whole new element of uncertainty to the growing epidemic. Like fentanyl, carfentanil is a colorless and odorless granule or powder that is undetectable by the daily user. Since dealers often mixed into heroin along with other ingredients, buyers have no way of knowing how much is in their dose. Since a lethal amount can be the size of a poppy seed, the danger here is obvious. In Ohio, public health and advocacy groups have issued warnings in several counties following a string of several overdoses last summer.

Confiscated heroin has tested positive for carfentanil in at least six other states, reinforcing fears that the dangerous substance will continue to spread. Chinese vendors are largely responsible for the influx of spiked heroin in the United States and Canada. Law enforcement believes it is being manufactured in China and imported into Mexico or South American countries, mixed in with Mexican heroin, and then trafficked into the United States.

Another frightening aspect is the fact that Naloxone, the only approved medicine to reverse opioid overdose, is often not powerful enough in regular doses to be effective. Individuals frequently require multiple doses to be revived because of the sheer potency of their narcotics. Naloxone, also known by its trade name Narcan, was developed for a typical heroin or opiate overdose.

There is a glimmer of hope, however. China has classified carfentanil and a few other synthetic opiate analogs as controlled substances, effective March of This substance will still be extremely hard to regulate because it is usually created in secret laboratories, but the new laws abroad are a beginning for international cooperation.

In the past, trace amounts of this deadly chemical have been undetectable, which is why it is hard to pinpoint its presence when combined with other drugs. It is difficult for law enforcement to affirmatively say that a synthetic opioid caused an overdose, rather than the heroin itself.

Recently, though, a toxicologist in Franklin County, Ohio has recently developed a test that is capable of detecting minuscule amounts of carfentanil within a sample of heroin.